In terms of our ability to communicate with others, hearing is our most critical sense.
Even relatively mild hearing loss can seriously disrupt how we interact and connect with others. Without healthy hearing, the consequences for our social and mental health — and physical health, in some cases — become greater, and overall quality of life can plummet. Healthy hearing requires a number of processes in the inner ear and brain to work properly in order to correctly interpret the sounds you hear. Inner-ear problems, or ear problems in general, can prevent crucial pieces of sound information from reaching the brain, leading to confusion and an inability to understand what is being said. Commonly, an ear problem in the outer or middle ear is referred to as a conductive hearing loss, while inner-ear problems or problems involving the auditory nerve are referred to as sensorineural hearing loss. These are two distinct types of hearing loss with differing treatment methods.
Why Binaural Hearing is Important
Binaural hearing refers to the brain’s ability to integrate information from both ears at once, which greatly improves overall communication and the ability to understand where sounds come from in relation to your body’s position. Hearing with both ears helps us to listen in noisy, complex environments and to hear speech sounds in noise.
It’s difficult to get by with only one healthy ear (unilateral hearing loss), particularly in educational settings. For example, children with unilateral hearing loss are far more likely to be forced to repeat a grade. Additionally, individuals with unilateral hearing loss find that speech comprehension suffers greatly, falling to only about 30 to 35 percent of what can be heard with two healthy ears.
Common Types of Hearing Loss
- Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SNHL): The most common type of hearing loss, SNHL is typically the result of damage to the delicate hair cells in the inner-ear organ (the cochlea) that are responsible for picking up sounds. When these hair cells or the nerves they connect to are damaged or destroyed, hearing becomes more difficult. Some of the causes of SNHL include loud noise exposure, aging, and ototoxic medications.
- Conductive Hearing Loss: This is a type of hearing loss that is typically the result of an infection or blockage in the outer or middle ear. Otitis media (middle-ear infections) can sometimes cause difficulty hearing due to a fluid buildup. Swimmer’s ear or a buildup of earwax may create a blockage outside the eardrum. This type of hearing loss is typically reversible once the infection or blockage clears, or once medical or surgical treatment is performed.
- Mixed Hearing Loss: Individuals with mixed hearing loss typically suffer from some combination of SNHL and conductive hearing loss. Hearing may improve after the conductive portion of the hearing loss is resolved through treatment or surgery. SNHL is usually permanent.
- Unilateral Hearing Loss: Hearing loss that occurs in only one ear is referred to as unilateral hearing loss. This can be present at birth, may happen spontaneously, or can occur over the course of several days (referred to as sudden hearing loss). Unilateral hearing loss may delay or otherwise effect speech and language development in children, but with proper audiological intervention and training they can achieve success academically, economically, and socially. Individuals with unilateral hearing loss may have difficulty identifying where sounds are coming from (localization), hearing speech in noisy situations, and hearing from longer distances.
- Sudden Hearing Loss: A sudden loss in hearing, either entirely or partially, within a 24-hour period — or immediately. Degrees of deafness vary, and while sudden hearing loss can resolve itself within two weeks, it’s possible that hearing may never return. Treatment may include steroids to support the recovery of hearing, but patients who see no change within two weeks are unlikely to see improvement. Those who suffer from a sudden hearing loss should consult their physician immediately, as faster treatment greatly increases chances of a full recovery. About 85 percent of those who seek treatment will recover some of their hearing.
- High-Frequency Hearing Loss: Those with high-frequency hearing loss can usually hear vowels just fine, but consonant sounds — like f, s, t, and sh — become difficult to hear. Early signs are an inability to hear higher-octave sounds, like a bird chirping or the voice of a woman or small child. People with high-frequency hearing loss often feel like other people mumble. Difficulty conversing in groups or hearing speech in background noise also indicate the possibility of a high-frequency hearing loss. Hearing aids are usually an effective treatment for high-frequency hearing loss.